Endorsements--Rounding 'Em Up in Iowa
Copyright © 2003, 2004 Eric M. Appleman/Democracy in Action.
T H E   B I G   P I C T U R E
E L E C T E D   O F F I C I A L S
Governor Tom Vilsack (D) ...no endorsement
   First Lady Christie Vilsack  ...Kerry (01/12/04)
Lt. Governor Sally Pederson (D) 
Secretary of State Chet Culver (D)  ...no endorsement
State Auditor David A. Vaudt (R)
Treasurer Michael Fitzgerald (D)  ...Edwards (01/12/04)
Secretary of Agriculture Patty Judge (D)  ...Kerry (01/14/04)
Attorney General Tom Miller (D)  ...Kerry (01/09/04)

House100 Members-- 53R 47D........

Senate50 Members-- 28R,  21D.......

Sen. Chuck Grassley (R)  Sen. Tom Harkin (D)    ...Dean (01/09/04)
Rep. Steve King (R)  Rep. Jim Leach (R)  Rep. Jim Nussle (R)  Rep. Tom Latham (R)   Rep. Leonard Boswell (D) 

The Des Moines Register ...Des Moines (Polk County)   ...Edwards (01/11/04)
Quad-City Times ...Davenport-Bettendorf (Scott County)   ...Kerry (01/08/04)
The Hawk Eye ...Burlington (Des Moines County)   ...Kerry (01/11/04)
Iowa City Press-Citizen ...Iowa City (Johnson County)   ...Kerry (01/10/04)
page updated February 2, 2004
Do Endorsements Matter?
Whether or not endorsements make any difference on Caucus Night is debatable, but they are important in the pre-primary period when developing campaigns strive to build credibility.  Campaigns go to considerable effort to round up endorsements.  The first targets are prominent party leaders including elected officials, former officials, erstwhile candidates, and party activists.  In addition, campaigns seek support of community activists and business and civic leaders; Democratic candidates also woo labor support.

The timing and format of endorsement announcements can be significant.  A mass endorsement, with elected officials lined up behind the candidate, can draw significant attention.  Alternatively, rolling out a steady stream of endorsements over a period of time can bolster the impression of a growing campaign.  Picking up a prominent supporter who had formerly been with another campaign is regarded as a coup, worthy of a press release or press conference.

Those that have endorsements trumpet them; those that don't argue that endorsements really don't matter and that anyhow they are pursuing a grassroots strategy.  Texas Gov. George W. Bush, receiving the endorsements of a majority of Iowa's Republican state legislators on September 1, 1999, stated, "These legislators bring credibility, on-the-ground leadership and support to my campaign..."  Almost by definition "establishment candidates" are able to rack up endorsements from large numbers of elected officials.  For others in the field, even a few elected official endorsements can help with credibility.

An endorser may play an active role in the campaign, serving as a surrogate, appearing with the candidate, making calls and rallying up support, or he or she may do nothing more than allow his or her name to be listed on the campaign's leadership team or steering committee.

The process of building support and endorsements among specific groups, such as farmers or educators, is known as coalitions, and is an area of the campaign unto itself. 

In sum, endorsements, like fundraising prowess and campaign organization, are an element that contributes to credibility.  Ultimately, however, voters' decisions are based on their views of a candidate's experience, ideas and values.

Key Endorsements 
As of January 19, 2004 at least 14 of the 21 Democratic State Senators and 41 of the 47 Democratic State Representatives endorsed.
Dean Edwards
State Senators
Daryl Beall (District 25-Fort Dodge)
Joseph Bolkcom (District 39-Iowa City)
State Representatives
Polly Bukta (District 26-Clinton)
Marcella Frevert (District 7-Emmetsburg)
Bruce Hunter (District 62-Des Moines) 
Donald Shoultz (District 21-Waterloo) 
Gregory Stevens (District 6-Milford) 
Cindy Winckler (District 86-Davenport)
County Chairs
Tim Ennis, Adams County 
Stave Kranz, Benton County 
Carolyn Larson, Butler County 
John Nelson, Emmet County 
John Amos, Lucas County
John Cahill, Marshall County
Bruce Biederman, Mitchell County 
Tom Hoover, Palo Alto County 
Jean Hartwell, Pottawattamie County
Sara Adams, Poweshiek County
Kay Ciha and Richard Gilmore, Washington County 
State Senator
Keith Kreiman (District 47-Bloomfield)
State Representatives
Dennis Cohoon (District 88-Burlington)
Ro Foege (District 29-Mt. Vernon)
Wayne Ford (District 65-Des Moines)
Geri Huser (District 42-Altoona)
Kurt Swaim (District 94-Bloomfield)
County Chairs
Peg Dunbar, Bremer County
Janet Melton, Cherokee County
Janet Adams, Hamilton County
Susan Marvin, Humboldt County
Joel Miller, Linn County
Mike Earlle, Osceola County 
Gephardt Kerry
State Senators
Thomas Courtney (District 44-Burlington) 
Dick Dearden (34-Des Moines)
Bill Dotzler (District 11- Waterloo)
Bob Dvorsky (District 15-Coralville)
State Representatives
John Connors (District 68-Des Moines)
Mark Kuhn (District 14-Charles City)
Helen Miller (District 49-Fort Dodge)
John Whitaker (District 90-Hillsboro)
Wesley Whitead (District 1-Sioux City)
State Senators
Dennis Black (District 21-Grinnell) 
Mike Connolly (District 14-Dubuque) 
Jack Hatch (District 33-Des Moines) 
Jack Kibbie (District 4-Emmetsburg) 
Matt McCoy (District 31-Des Moines) 
Roger Stewart (District 13-Preston)
Steve Warnstadt (District 1-Sioux City) 
State Representatives
Paul Bell (District 41-Newton)
Deborah Berry (District 22-Waterloo) 
Swati Dandekar (District 36-Marion) 
Mark Davitt (District 74-Indianola)
Mary Gaskill (District 93-Ottumwa)
Jane Greimann (District 45-Ames)
Lisa Heddens (District 46-Ames) 
Dave Jacoby (District 30-Coralville) 
Pam Jochum (District 27-Dubuque) 
Mary Mascher (District 77-Iowa City) 
Jo Oldson (District 61-Des Moines)
Donovan Olson (District 48-Boone)
Bob Osterhaus (District 25-Maquoketa) 
Janet Petersen (District 64-Des Moines) 
Brian Quirk (District 15-New Hampton) 
Mark Smith (District 43-Marshalltown) 
Doug Struyk (District 99-Council Bluffs)  (switched from Lieberman)
Dick Taylor (District 33-Cedar Rapids)
Roger Thomas (District 24-Elkader) 
Roger Wendt (District 2-Sioux City) 
County Chairs
Ann Klees, Allamakee County (acc. to campaign switched from Dean)
Wes Garvey, Calhoun County
Ann Fitzgibbons, Dickinson County
Chuck Taylor, Fayette County
Gloria Goll, Hancock County
Bob Holstein, Harrison County
Stephen Dailey, Jasper County
Susan Pamperin, Scott County
Jan Bauer, Story County
John Ralls, Winnebago County
Kucinich Lieberman 
State Representative
Ed Fallon (District 66-Des Moines)
State Representatives
Kevin McCarthy (District 67-Des Moines)
Mike Reasoner (District 95-Creston)
Paul Shomshor (District 100-Council Bluffs)
Phil Wise (District 92-Keokuk)

Doug Struyk (District 99-Council Bluffs) 
(switch to Kerry announced Jan. 6, 2004) 

No Information
State Senators
Eugene Fraise (District 46-Fort Madison)
Michael Gronstal (District 50-Council Bluffs)
Jack Holveck (District 32-Des Moines)
Wally Horn (District 17-Cedar Rapids)
Herman Quirmbach (District 23-Ames)
Amanda Ragan (District 7-Mason City)
Joe Seng (District 43-Davenport)
State Representatives
Robert Hogg (District 38-Cedar Rapids)
Vicki Lensing (District 78-Iowa City)
Jim Lykam (District 85-Davenport)
Dolores Mertz (District 8-Ottosen)
Pat Murphy (District 28-Dubuque)
Todd Taylor (District 34-Cedar Rapids)

21 Democratic State Senators
25 - Daryl Beall of Fort Dodge
21 - Dennis Black of Grinnell
39 - Joe Bolkcom of Iowa City, Assistant Minority Leader
14 - Mike Connolly of Dubuque, Assistant Minority Leader
44 - Thomas Courtney of Burlington
34 - Dick Dearden of Des Moines
11 - Bill Dotzler of Waterloo
15 - Robert Dvorsky of Coralville
46 - Eugene Fraise of Fort Madison
50 - Michael Gronstal of Council Bluffs, Minority Leader
33 - Jack Hatch of Des Moines
32 - Jack Holveck of Des Moines
17 - Wally Horn of Cedar Rapids
4 - John Kibbie of Emmetsburg, Assistant Minority Leader
47 - Keith Kreiman of Bloomfield
31 - Matt McCoy of Des Moines
23 - Herman Quirmbach of Ames
7 - Amanda Ragan of Mason City, Assistant Minority Leader
43 - Joe Seng of Davenport
13 - Roger Stewart of Preston
1 - Steve Warnstadt of Sioux City
47 Democratic State Representatives
41 - Paul Bell of Newton
22 - Deborah Berry of Waterloo
26 - Paula Bukta of Clinton, Assistant Minority Leader
88 - Dennis Cohoon of Burlington
68 - John Connors of Des Moines
36 - Swati Dandekar of Marion
74 - Mark Davitt of Indianola
66 - Ed Fallon of Des Moines
29 - Ro Foege of Mt. Vernon
65 - Wayne Ford of Des Moines
7 - Marcella Frevert of Emmetsburg
93 - Mary Gaskill of Ottumwa
45 - Jane Greimann of Ames
46 - Lisa Heddens of Ames
38 - Robert Hogg of Cedar Rapids
62 - Bruce Hunter of Des Moines
42 - Geri Huser of Altoona
30 - Dave Jacoby of Coralville 
Coralville City Councilor won August 26, 2003 special election.
27 - Pam Jochum of Dubuque
14 - Mark Kuhn of Charles City
78 - Vicki Lensing of Iowa City
85 - Jim Lykam of Davenport
77 - Mary Mascher of Iowa City, Assistant Minority Leader
67 - Kevin McCarthy of Des Moines
8 - Dolores Mertz of Ottosen
49 - Helen Miller of Fort Dodge
28 - Pat Murphy of Dubuque
61 - Jo Oldson of Des Moines
48 - Donovan Olson of Boone
25 - Robert Osterhaus of Maquoketa
64 - Janet Petersen of Des Moines
15 - Brian Quirk of New Hampton, Assistant Minority Leader
95 - Michael Reasoner of Creston
100 - Paul Shomshor of Council Bluffs
21 - Don Shoultz of Waterloo
43 - Mark Smith of Marshalltown
6 - Greg Stevens of Milford, Assistant Minority Leader
99 - Doug Struyk of Council Bluffs
94 - Kurt Swaim of Bloomfield
33 - Dick Taylor of Cedar Rapids
34 - Todd Taylor of Cedar Rapids
24 - Roger Thomas of Elkader
2 - Roger Wendt of Sioux City
90 - John Whitaker of Hillsboro
1 - Wesley Whitead of Sioux City
86 - Cindy Winckler of Davenport
92 - Philip Wise of Keokuk

Looking Back
Relatively few papers made endorsements in the 2000 Iowa caucus campaign primary:
The Des Moines Register ...Des Moines (Polk County)
pd. circ. daily 158,537, Sun. 254,820
Bradley (1/23/00)
The Gazette ...Cedar Rapids-Marion (Linn County)
pd. circ. daily  66,980, Sun. 81,992
No endorsement.
Quad-City Times ...Davenport-Bettendorf (Scott County)
pd. circ. daily 63,461, Sun. 73,408
No endorsement.
Sioux City Journal ...Sioux City (Woodbury County)
pd. circ. daily 48,175, Sun.  46,662
Bush, Gore (1/23/00)
Waterloo Courier ...Waterloo-Cedar Falls (Black Hawk Co.)
pd. circ. daily 45,831, Sun. 52,872
No endorsement.
Telegraph Herald ...Dubuque (Dubuque County) and Illinois
pd. circ. daily 29,113, Sun. 34,710
No endorsement.
Globe-Gazette ...Mason City (Cerro Gordo County)
pd. circ. daily 19,681, Sun. 23,587
No endorsement.
The Hawk Eye ...Burlington (Des Moines County)
pd. circ. daily 19,487, Sun. 21,364
Bradley (1/15/00)
The Messenger ...Fort Dodge (Webster County)
pd. circ. daily 18,659, Sun. 21,387
Bush, Bradley (1/23/00)
The Ottumwa Courier ...Ottumwa (Wapello County)
pd. circ. daily 17,867
No endorsement.
The Daily Nonpareil ...Council Bluffs (Pottawattamie Country)
pd. circ. daily 16,816, Sun. 20,978
No endorsement.
Iowa City Press-Citizen ...Iowa City (Johnson County)
pd. circ. daily 15,245, Sun. 18,534 (Sat)
Clinton Herald ...Clinton (Clinton County)
pd. circ. daily 13,735
No endorsement.
Times-Republican ...Marshalltown (Marshall County)
pd. circ. daily 10,519, Sun. 10,945

Copyright © 2003, 2004 Eric M. Appleman/Democracy in Action.